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高频开关电源变压器用功率铁氧体的制备技术

字号:T|T
文章出处:ironfran.com编辑:高频开关电源变压器发表时间:2015-4-4 8:59:05

随着电力电子技术的发展,进一步增加了对电子设备的多功能化和高密度化的需求,作为电子设备不可缺少的开关电源,迫切要求实现小型轻量化。而为了使开关电源小型化,首先要求开关电源变压器小型化。工作频率更高的PC44及PC50功率铁氧体材料和磁芯就是为适应这种需求而发展起来的。

TIEYANGTIDEXINGNENGBINGBUSHIJINJINYOUQIHUAXUECHENGFENJIJINGTIJIEGOUJUEDINGDE,HAIXUYAOYANJIUHEKONGZHITAMENDEMIDU、JINGLICHICUN、QIKONGLVYIJITAMENZAIJINGLINEIBUHEJINGLIZHIJIANDEFENBUDENG。YINCI,ZHIBEIGAOXINGNENGGONGLVTIEYANGTICAILIAO,PEIFANGSHIJICHU、SHAOJIESHIGUANJIAN。PEIFANGHEMIDUJUEDINGZHECAILIAODEBAOHECITONGMIDUBs(GONGLVTIEYANGTICIXINTONGCHANGGONGZUOYUYOUZHILIUPIANZHICHANGDEZHUANGTAIXIA,GAO BsSHIWEILEBAOZHENGCIXINJUYOUGAOZHILIUDIEJIATEXINGDEXUYAO)HEJULIWENDU(fc),ERCHANRUYOUXIAODETIANJIAWUBINGYUSHIDANGDESHAOJIEGONGYIXIANGPIPEI,ZEDUITIEYANGTIDEXINGNENGJUYOUJUEDINGYIYI,YINGXIANGZHEGUXIANGFANYINGDECHENGDUJIZUIHOUDEXIANGZUCHENG、MIDUHEJINGLIDAXIAODENG,SHIRUANCITIEYANGTIDEWEIGUANJIEGOUDEDAOGENGYOUXIAODEKONGZHI,CONGERQUEBAOCAILIAODEZHUYAOTEXINGCANSHUDADAOHEXIEDETONGYI。

1 高性能功率铁氧体的主配方选择 
澳门足彩为提高功率转换效率并避免饱和,要求用在高频开关电源变压器中的功率铁氧体材料具有高Bs、高起始磁导率(μi)和高振幅磁导率(μa),同时为了避免变压器在高频下发热击穿,材料的功率损耗(Rc)应尽量小,希望呈负的温度系数。可以说,衡量功率铁氧体材料优劣的3个重要磁性能参数是μi、曰 Bs和Rc以及这些参数的频率、温度和时间稳定性,它们之间是一个矛盾的统一体,某些参数甚至严重对立,将它们有机统一的总体思路是控制磁晶各向异性常数 K1~t曲线及铁氧体的微观结构,在配方、添加物和烧结工艺上使K1有一个好的温度特性,将K1的最小值调节到合适的位置,并使其趋向于零。

μiDEDAXIAODUICIXINJUYOUGAODIANGANYINSHU(AL)DEGONGXIANZUIWEIZHIJIE,YINCI,BAOZHENGTIEYANGTIYOUJIAOGAODEμiZHISHIBIXUDE。DANLINGYIFANGMIAN,μiYUCAILIAOJIEZHIPINLVfrZHIJIANXIANGHUZHIYUE,TIGAOCAILIAODESHIYONGPINLVYUTIGAOμiSHIXIANGHUDUILIDE,ZAISHIJICAILIAOZHONGZHINENGXIANGHUJIANGU。

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2 高性能功率铁氧体的添加物选择 
澳门足彩功率铁氧体的化学成分不是决定铁氧体性质的唯一因素,阳离子和晶点缺陷在晶位中的分布起着头等重要的作用。通过掺入添加物和工艺调整来改善铁氧体的微观结构,更有助于使材料的主要特性参数达到和谐的统一。根据基础磁学理论,功率铁氧体材料的截止频率fr与铁氧体的晶粒大小d右式(1)关系。


式中:Ms为材料的饱和磁化强度; 
β为阻尼系数。

YOUSHI(1)KEZHI,,YUd(μ1YI1)CHENGFANBILIGUANXI,SUOYI,TONGGUOCHANRUTIANJIAWUHESHAOJIEGONGYIDEDIAOZHENGSHIJINGLIXIHUA,JIANXIAOJINGLICHICUN,KEYITIGAOCAILIAODEJIEZHIPINLV(YEJIUTIGAOLEQIGONGZUOPINLV)。DANJINGLICHICUNDEWUXIANJIANXIAO,BIDINGZENGDAGONGLVSUNHAO。LINGYIFANGMIAN,μ1DEGAODI(YUSHAOJIEWENDUYOUJIAODAGUANXI)YEGUANXIDAOfrDEDAXIAO。

对通常工作在几百kHz高频下的PC44、PC50材料而言,功率损耗主要由磁滞损耗Rh和涡流损耗Pe两部分组成。由于hocBm3(Bm为工作磁通密度),可见为降低Ph,材料的Bs要高,成分的均匀性要好(采用高纯原材料),同时必须改善晶粒大小的一致性并提高材料密度,尽量减小内应力。涡流损耗用式(2)表示。 
Pe=(丌2/4)·r2·lf2·Bm2/p (2) 
式中:r为平均晶粒尺寸; 
p为电阻率。

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澳门足彩KONGZHIJINGLIDAXIAOHEDIANZULVDEZUIYOUXIAOBANFASHIHELIDICHANRENTIANJIAWUHEGAISHANSHAOJIEGONGYI。ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,CHANRUYIXIEYOUYIDETIANJIAWURUSn02、TiO2、Co2O3DENG,KEJINYIBUKONGZHICAILIAODEK1ZHI,SHIQIZAIJIAOKUANDEWENDUFANWEINEIBIANDEHENXIAO;FUHETIANJIACaOHESiO2,KEZENGDACAILIAODEDIANZULV、JIANGDICAILIAODEGONGLVSUNHAO。SHIJISHANG,DUIMn—znTIEYANGTIXINGNENGTIGAOYOUSHIYONGJIAZHIDETIANJIAWUJIAODUO,TAMENDEZHUYAOZUOYONGKEFENWEI3LEI:DIYILEITIANJIAWUZAIJINGJIECHUPIANXI,YINGXIANGJINGJIEDIANZULV;DIERLEIYINGXIANGTIEYANGTISHAOJIESHIDEWEIGUANJIEGOUBIANHUA,TONGGUOSHAOJIEWENDUHEYANGHANLIANGDEKONGZHIKEGAISHANWEIGUANJIEGOU,JIANGDIGONGLVSUNHAO、TIGAOCAILIAOCIDAOLVDEWENDUHESHIJIANWENDINGXING、KUOZHANPINLVDENG;DISANLEIZEGURONGYUJIANJINGSHIJIEGOUZHIZHONG,YINGXIANGCAILIAOCIXINGNENG。 Ca、SiDENGYUANSUDETIANJIAWUSHUDIYILEIHEDIERLEI;Bi、Mo、V、PDENGYUANSUSHUDIERLEI;_Ti、Cr、C0、Al、Mg、Ni、Cu、SnDENGYUANSUDEZHUYAOZUOYONGSHUDISANLEI。

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在开发高性能功率铁氧体材料时,要充分利用前人的成果,不要花过多精力浪费在配方和添加物的摸索上。总的配方和掺杂原则是尽可能地使磁晶各向异性常数K1和磁致伸缩常数λs趋近于零。选择添加物要注意以下原则: 
1)掺入添加物总量(wt%)应控制在O.2%以下; 
2)CaO(或CaCO3)和SiO2通常是不可或缺的添加物;


3)V2O5、Nb205、_Ti02、Ta2O5、HfO2、CO2O3等高价离子组合添加,组分不宜过多,最好不超过4种,每种添加物的重量一般应控制在1000ppm,以下; 
澳门足彩4)在上述各添加物中,除了Co3+子外,其它离子的K1值都是负值,如飞利浦公司开发的3F3材料(介于PC40和PC50之间的一种材料),基本技术要点就是同时添加了Ti4+和C03+以控制材料的温度特性,减少磁滞损耗,如图6所示。


3 高性能功率铁氧体的烧结工艺 
烧结是制备高性能功率铁氧体材料的关键工序。在烧结过程中,升降温速度、最高烧结温度和炉内气氛是该工序中必须严格控制的3个关键因素,它们对铁氧体材料的微观结构、化学成分及电磁性能等参数都有很大影响。合适的烧结工艺应根据原材料配方及添加物情况、预烧温度、窑炉结构及长度、降温方式、功率铁氧体的性能取舍等综合确定,并通过材料的最终性能来进行工艺验证和判定。

SHENGWENSUDUDUITIEYANGTICHANPINDEMIDU、JINGLIDAXIAOJIJUNYUNXINGYOUZHIJIEGUANXI,SHENGWENSUDUGUOKUAIJIANGSHIJINGLICHICUNBUJUNYUN,NEIBUCUNZAIJIAODUODEQIKONG;SHENGWENSUDUTAIMAN,ZESHAOCHENGDETIEYANGTIMIDUDI,QIKONGMINGXIANZENGDA。WEILEDEDAOJINGLIXIAOERJUNYUN(PC40CAILIAO,JINGLIYUEWEI10~14μm,PC50CAILIAO,JINGLIYUEWEI3~6μm)、QIKONGSHAO、MIDUGAO、WUKAILIEQUEXIANDETIEYANGTI,600℃YIXIASHENGWENBUHUANGUOKUAI,600~900℃KEKUAIYIXIE,900~l100℃WEIJINGLICHUSHENGJIEDUAN,YIPINGWENSHENGWEN,TONGSHICAIQUZHIMIHUACUOSHICHULI,1100℃YISHANGKESHAOKUAIYIXIE,ZUIGAOSHAOJIEWENDUBUDAYU1 350℃(WEIXIANZHIJINGLICHICUN),BAOWENSHIJIAN3~4hJIKE,RANHOUZAIDANQI(N2)BAOHUXIAXUANZEHESHIDEYANGFENYAJIANGWEN。

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ZAIJIANGWENJIEDUANHUIYINQITIEYANGTIDEYANGHUAHUOHAIYUAN,TONGGUOJIARUSHILIANGDEN2BAOHUQIFENYIKONGZHIYAOLUNEIDEYANGFENYA,SHIWEILEFANGZHITIEYANGTIZAILENGQUEGUOCHENGZHONGMn、Fe、CoCuDENGLIZIBIANJIA、CHANSHENGTUORONGWU、YINQIJINGGEBIANHUADENG。GUODUDEYANGHUAYUHAIYUAN,JIUYOULINGXIANGRUa-Fez03、Fe0、Fe3O4、Mn203XICHU,CONGERDAOZHICIXINGNENGDEJIJUEHUA。TU 7SHIPEIFANGWEIFe2O3:MnO:ZnO=51.9:26.8:18. 3(mol%)DEGONGLVTIEYANGTIPINGHENGQIFENXIANGTU,CONGTU7ZHONGKEKANCHUQIFENDUIJIANJINGSHIXIANGHE Fe2O3XIANGJIENEIYANGHUAZHUANGTAIDEZHONGYAOXING。YAOTEBIEZHUYI,XIANYANDENGCHENGFENXIANLENGQUE,JIEZHEZAIZUIDIDEWENDUXIATONGGUOXIANGJIEXUNSULENGQUE,ZHEISHISHENGZHANGDONGLIXUEBUMINGAN,SHIa-Fe203DETUORONGZUISHAO,YANGHUAHESHENGCHENGLINGXIANGDECHENGDUZUIQING。TU8LIECHULEGONGLVTIEYANGTIDEDIANXINGSHAOJIEGONGYIQUXIAN。



4 结语 
1)制备PC44、PC50等高性能功率铁氧体材料,配方是基础、烧结是关键。 
2)总的配方和掺杂原则是尽可能使磁晶各向异性常数K1和磁致伸缩常数λ s趋近于零。 
3)掺入适量的添加物如Ca0、SiO2、V2OS、Ti02、Co203等,并与合适的烧结工艺相匹配,可改吾高性能功率铁氧体材料的微观结构,对提高材料综合性能的作用更为突出。


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